Heroic Age Logo The Heroic Age, Issue 1, Spring/Summer 1999  

The Age of Arthur

Notes and Bibliography


  1. The classic studies are Wainwright 1955 and Henderson 1967. More recent scholarly works include Friell and Watson 1984, Ritchie 1989, Cummins 1995, and Nicoll 1995.

  2. Classic studies of the early English include Stenton 1971, Campbell 1982, and Myres 1986. See also Evison 1981, Bassett 1989, and Welch 1992.

  3. The current standard edition of Patrick's writings is Hood 1978. For recent Patrician scholarship, see Dronke 1981:21-38, Thompson 1985, Dumville et al. 1993, and Howlett 1994.

  4. The standard edition of Gildas' writings is Winterbottom 1978. For recent scholarship on Gildas, see Kerlouégan 1968:151-76 and 1987, and especially Lapidge and Dumville 1984.

  5. For all relevant passages, see chap. 3 of Snyder 1998.

  6. The Latin text can be found in Mommsen 1826, 9:617-66. For recent scholarship concerning the British passages, see Muhlberger 1983:23-33 and 1990, Jones and Casey 1988:367-97 and 1991:212-15, and Burgess 1990:185-95.

  7. An accessible English edition of the Life can be found in Noble and Head 1995. For recent scholarship, see Mathisen 1981:151-59, Thompson 1984, and Wood (Lapidge and Dumville 1984:1-26).

  8. The first modern work to do this was Jackson 1953/1994. For more recent epigraphic studies, see Thomas 1994 and Knight 1996:109-20.

  9. For recent developments among Anglo-Saxonists on the adventus, see Böhme 1986:469-574, Welch 1993:269-77, and Härke 1989:49-61.


Alcock, Leslie. 1971. Arthur's Britain. New York: Penguin.

Allen, J. Romilly and Joseph Anderson. 1903. Early Christian Monuments of Scotland. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

Arnold, C.J. 1984. Roman Britain to Saxon England. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ. Press.

Ashe, Geoffrey. 1981. "A Certain Very Ancient Book." Speculum 56: 301-23.

Ashe, Geoffrey. 1985. The Discovery of King Arthur. New York: Doubleday.

Bannerman, John. 1974. Studies in the History of Dalriada. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Bartrum, P.C. 1966. Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts. Cardiff: Univ. of Wales Press.

Bassett, Steven, ed., 1989. The Origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms. Leicester: Leicester Univ. Press.

Böhme, Horst Wolfgang. 1986. "Das Ende der Römerherrschaft in Britannien und die Angelsächsische Besiedlung Englands im 5. Jahrhundert." Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 33:469-574.

Burgess, R.W. 1990. "The Dark Ages Return to Fifth-Century Britain: The Restored Gallic Chronicle Exploded," Britannia 21:185-95.

Campbell, Ewan. 1996. "The Archaeological Evidence for External Contacts: Imports, Trade and Economy in Celtic Britain A.D. 400-800." In External Contacts, ed. by K.R. Dark, pp. 83-96. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press.

Campbell, James, ed. 1982. The Anglo-Saxons. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

Collingwood, R.G. and J.N.L. Myres. 1936. Roman Britain and the English Settlements. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Collingwood, R.G. and R.P. Wright, eds. 1965. Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Vol. 1. Oxford: Univ. Press. (Volume 2 is being issued in Fascicules, five of which have appeared so far.)

Cummins, W.A. 1995. The Age of the Picts. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton.

Dark, Kenneth R. 1993. Civitas to Kingdom: British Political Continuity 300-800. Leicester: Univ. Press.

Dark, Kenneth R., ed. 1996. External Contacts and the Economy of Late Roman and Post-Roman Britain. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press.

Dark, Kenneth R. 1998. "Centuries of Roman Survival in the West." British Archaeology 32 (March) http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba32/ba32feat.html#dark

Davies, Wendy. 1978. An Early Welsh Microcosm: Studies in the Llandaff Charters. London: Royal Historical Society.

Doble, Gilbert H., ed. 1984. Lives of the Welsh Saints. Cardiff: Univ. of Wales Press.

Dronke, P. 1981. "St. Patrick's Reading," Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 1:21-38.

Dumville, David N. 1977. "Sub-Roman Britain: History and Legend." History 62: 173-92.

Dumville, David N., et al. 1993. Saint Patrick, AD 493-1993. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell.

Esmonde Cleary, A.S. 1989. The Ending of Roman Britain. London: Batsford.

Evison, Vera, ed. 1981. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Friell, J.P.G., and W.G. Watson, eds. 1984. Pictish Studies: Settlements, Burial and Art in Dark Age Northern Britain. BAR No. 125. Oxford: Tempvs Reparatvm.

Härke, Heinrich. 1989. "Early Saxon Weapon Burials: Frequencies, Distributions, and Weapon Combinations." In Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England, pp. 49-61. Edited by Sonia C. Hawkes. Oxford: [PRESS] 1989.

Henderson, Isabel. 1967. The Picts. New York: Praeger.

Higham, Nicholas J. 1994. The English Conquest: Gildas and Britain in the Fifth Century. Manchester and New York: Manchester Univ. Press.

Hill, Peter. 1998. St. Ninnian and Whithorn: The Excavation of a Monastic Town. Gloucester: Sutton.

Hood, A.B.E., ed. and trans. 1978. St. Patrick: His Writings and Muirchu's "Life". London: Phillimore.

Howlett, D.R. 1994. "Liber Epistolarum Sancti Patricii Episcopi," The Book of Letters of Saint Patrick the Bishop. Dublin: Four Courts Press.

Jackson, Kenneth. 1953. Language and History in Early Britain. Edinburgh: Univ. Press; Reprint Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1994.

Jones, Michael E. 1996. The End of Roman Britain. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

Jones, Michael E., and John Casey. 1988. "The Gallic Chronicle Restored: A Chronology for the Anglo-Saxon Invasions and the End of Roman Britain," Britannia 19:367-97.

Jones, Michael E., and John Casey. 1991. "The Gallic Chronicle Exploded?" Britannia 22:212-15.

Kerlouégan, François. 1968. "Le Latin du De Excidio Britanniae de Gildas." In Christianity in Britain, pp. 151-76. Edited by M.W. Barley and R.P.C. Hanson. Leicester: Univ. Press.

Kerlouégan, François. 1987. Le "De Excidio Britanniae" de Gildas: Les Destinées de la Culture Latine dans l'Île de Bretagne au Vie Siècle. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne.

Knight, Jeremy K. 1996. "Seasoned with Salt: Insular-Gallic Contacts in the Early Memorial Stones and Cross Slabs." In External Contacts and the Economy of Late Roman and Post-Roman Britain, pp. 109-20. Edited by K.R. Dark. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press.

Lapidge, Michael, and David Dumville, eds., 1984. Gildas: New Approaches. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell.

Littleton, C. Scott and Linda Malcor. 1994. From Scythia to Camelot. New York: Garland.

Mathisen, Ralph W. 1981. "The Last Year of Saint Germanus of Auxerre." Analecta Bollandiana 99:151-59.

McManus, Damian. 1991. A Guide to Ogam. Maynooth: An Sagart.

Mommsen, Theodor, et al. eds. 1826. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Vol. 9 of Chronica Minora, pp. 617-66. Berlin: Weidmann.

Morris, John. 1973. The Age of Arthur: A History of the British Isles from 350 to 650. New York: Scribner's.

Muhlberger, Steven. 1983. "The Gallic Chronicle of 452 and its Authority for British Events." Britannia 14:23-33.

Muhlberger, Steven. 1990. The Fifth-Century Chroniclers: Prosper, Hydatius and the Chronicler of 452. Leeds: Francis Cairns.

Myres, J.N.L. 1986. The English Settlements. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1950. The Early Christian Monuments of Wales. Cardiff: Univ. of Wales Press.

Nicoll, Eric H., ed. 1995. A Pictish Panorama: The Story of the Picts and A Picitish Bibliography. Pictish Arts Society. Belgavies, Angus: The Pinkfoot Press.

Noble, Thomas F.X., and Thomas Head, eds. 1995. Soldiers of Christ: Saints and Saints' Lives from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. University Park, PA: Penn State Univ. Press.

Okasha, Elisabeth. 1993. Corpus of Early Christian Inscribed Stones of Southwestern Britain. Leicester: Leicester Univ. Press.

Phillips, Graham and Martin Keatman. 1992. King Arthur: The True Story. London: Random House.

Ritchie, Anna. 1989. The Picts Edinburgh: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Snyder, Christopher A. 1996. Sub-Roman Britain (AD 400-600): A Gazetteer of Sites. BAR British Series No. 247. Oxford: Tempvs Reparatvm.

Snyder, Christopher A. 1997. "A Gazetteer of Sub-Roman Britain (AD 400-600): The British Sites." Internet Archaeology 3 http://intarch.york.ac.uk.

Snyder, Christopher A. 1998. An Age of Tyrants: Britain and the Britons, AD 400-600. University Park, PA: Penn State Press.

Stenton, Sir Frank. 1971. Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thompson, E.A. 1985. Who Was Saint Patrick? New York: St. Martin's.

Thomas, Charles. 1981. Christianity in Roman Britain to AD 500. London: Batsford.

Thomas, Charles. 1990. "Gallici Nautae de Galliarum Provinciis--A Sixth/Seventh Century Trade with Gaul, Reconsidered." Medieval Archaeology 34: 1-26.

Thomas, Charles. 1994. And Shall these Mute Stones Speak? Post-Roman Inscriptions in Western Britain. Cardiff: Univ. of Wales Press.

Thomas, Charles. Celtic Britain. 1997. London: Thames and Hudson.

Thompson, E.A. 1984. St. Germanus of Auxerre and the End of Roman Britain. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell.

Thompson, E.A. 1985. Who Was Saint Patrick? New York: St. Martin's.

Tolstoy, Nikolai. 1985. The Quest for Merlin. Boston: Little, Brown.

Wainwright, F.T., ed. 1955. The Problem of the Picts. Perth: Melven Press.

Welch, Martin. 1992. Discovering Anglo-Saxon England. University Park, PA: Penn State Univ. Press.

Welch, Martin G. 1993. "The Archaeological Evidence for Federate Settlement in Britain Within the Fifth Century." In L'Armée Romaine et les Barbares du IIIe au VIIe Siècle, pp. 269-77. Edited by F. Vallet and M. Kazanski. Rouen: Musée des Antiquités Nationales.

Winterbottom, Michael, ed. and trans. 1978. Gildas: The Ruin of Britain and Other Works. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.

Wormald, Patrick et al., eds. 1993. Ideal and Reality in Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

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