Heroic Age Logo The Heroic Age, Issue 1, Spring/Summer 1999  

The Gododdin Revisited

Notes and Bibliography


  1. On the case for accepting Bede's account, see Wallace-Hadrill 1988:65.
  2. See, for example, Alcock 1987:253; Clarkson 1993; Cessford 1997; McDiarmid 1983:5.
  3. For the idea that Rheged included both Galloway and Catterick, see Williams 1975:xxxvi-xlvii, and the references cited there.
  4. In John Morris's much-maligned book (Morris 1973), an attempt was made to write a continuous narrative history of the fifth to seventh centuries, but relied too heavily on uncritical synthesis of a plethora of dubious sources.
  5. The theory that Edinburgh was subjected to a Bernician siege in 638, during Oswald's kingship, is discussed in Jackson (1959).


Alcock, L. 1987. Economy, Society and Warfare Among the Britons and Saxons Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Cessford, C. 1997. "Northern England and the Gododdin Poem". Northern History 33: 218-222.

Clarkson, T. 1993. "Richmond and Catraeth". Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 26 (Winter): 15-20.

Jackson, K.H. 1959. "Edinburgh and the Anglian Occupation of Lothian" pp.35-42 in The Anglo-Saxons: Studies in Some Aspects of their History and Culture Presented to Bruce Dickins. Edited by P. Clemoes. London: Bowes and Bowes.

Jackson, K.H. 1963. "On the Northern British Section in Nennius" pp.20-62 in Celt and Saxon: Studies in the Early British Border. Edited by N. K. Chadwick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

James, E. 1989. "The Origins of Barbarian Kingdoms: the Continental Evidence" pp. 40-52 in The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms. Edited by S. Bassett. Leicester: Leicester University Press.

Jarman, A. O. H. 1988. Aneirin: Y Gododdin Llandysul: Gower Press.

Jones, G. R. J. 1975. "Early Territorial Organization in Gwynedd and Elmet". Northern History 10: 2-27.

Koch, J. T. 1997. The Gododdin of Aneirin: Text and Context from Dark Age North Britain Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

McClure J. and Collins, R., eds. 1994. Bede: the Ecclesiastical History of the English People Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McDiarmid, M. P. 1983. "The Gododdin and Other Heroic Poems of Scotland", pp. 1-17 in Scotland and the Lowland Tongue. Edited by J. D. McClure. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.

Miller, M. 1975. "Historicity and the Pedigrees of the Northcountrymen". Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 26: 255-80.

Morris, J. 1973. The Age of Arthur London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Morris, J. 1980. Nennius: British History and the Welsh Annals London: Phillimore.

Padel, Oliver. 1998. "A New Study of the Gododdin". Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 35 (Summer): 45-55.

Pennar, M. 1988. Taliesin Poems Felinfach: Llanerch.

Stancliffe, C. 1995. "Oswald, Most Holy and Victorious King of the Northumbrians", pp.33-83, and "Where was Oswald Killed?", pp. 84-96 in Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint. Edited by C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge. Stamford: Paul Watkins.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. 1988. Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People: A Historical Commentary Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Williams, I. 1972. Armes Prydein: the Prophecy of Britain Translated by R. Bromwich. Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies.

Williams, I. 1975. The Poems of Taliesin J. E. C. Williams, Trans. Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies.

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