Soderberg—The Year in Medieval Archaeology
©2017 by John Soderberg. All intellectual property rights reserved. This edition copyright © 2017 by The Heroic Age. Permissions granted for educational and personal purposes only.
§1. 2014 and 2015 did not have a single discovery that galvanized press attention, as Richard III and the Staffordshire Hoard have done in past years. But, academic publications from these years do show important shifts in how archaeologists handle religion. In 1987, Ralph Merrifield recognized the value of material studies of religion in The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic . But, as Roberta Gilchrist noted recently, subsequent decades have shown mainly stubborn resistance to engaging with the topic (Gilchrist 2012). Resistance appears to be fading. 2015 saw the publication of two edited volumes on materiality and religion: The Materiality of Magic (Houlbrook and Armitage 2015) and Physical Evidence for Ritual Acts, Sorcery and Witchcraft in Christian Britain (Hutton 2015). As their titles suggest, both concentrate on non-ecclesiastical practices. Stephen Gordon (2015), for instance, uses documentary and archaeological evidence to discuss techniques for protecting the thresholds of houses from the walking dead. Refreshingly, the goal in this and other papers is not so much proving that "heterodox" practices existed. Rather, emphasis is on showing the entanglement of rituals with everyday concerns such as the maintenance of domestic and civic relationships.
§2. Other publications develop much the same perspective on a variety of religious experiences. Roberta Gilchrist (2014) reviews church and monastic archaeology since 1970 and concludes with a call for more holistic approaches to "performative rituals." Other notable studies discuss: oppida as spaces for ritual gathering (Fernández-Götz 2014a), ways non-elite Icelanders took part in discourse on becoming Christian (Kristjánsdóttir 2015), Viking Age weapons deposits as efforts by migrants to construct a recognizable landscape in Britain (Raffield 2014), the multiple layers of meanings found in grave goods (Härke 2015; Härke and Belinskij 2014), and the importance of congregational cult sites to the commercial surge in the early medieval period (Carver 2015).
§3. The value of these innovative approaches to religion is particularly evident in the Norfolk and Suffolk Medieval Graffiti Survey, a community archaeology project which documented 28,000 examples of medieval graffiti in the churches of eastern England. Matthew Champion emphasizes that the drawings are not furtive scratchings. They are often geometrically complex, carefully executed, and placed in highly visible locations, such as around baptismal fonts. Champion calls them "prayers made solid" (Champion 2015a, 36 and Champion 2015b). In previous decades, such views might have descended into simplistic discussion of hidden and official transcripts. But, by keeping in mind the full range of possibilities for performing religion, this research brings clarity to how deeply worshipers engaged with these buildings and how many different ways of inhabiting a church exist. Though press coverage was not at the level of Richard III, the graffiti study was among the better publicized stories in medieval archaeology for 2014–2015, with articles by the BBC, the BBC History Magazine, and The Guardian.
§4. Explorations of identity formation remain an area of strong interest in medieval archaeology. The papers collected in The Lives of Prehistoric Monuments in Iron Age, Roman, and Medieval Europe examine identity from the perspective of memory and the reuse of monuments (Díaz-Guardamino, Sanjuán, and Wheatley 2015). Magdalena Naum (2014) explores how both sameness and difference were maintained in multi-ethnic medieval Tallinn. Several works explore the convergence of identities and ecology. Fiona Beglane examines the Anglo-Norman colonial project and its encounter with indigenous Irish populations from the perspective of deer hunting and enclosure of parkland (Beglane 2014, 2015). Krish Seetah, et al. (2014) investigate cultural transformations in the eastern Baltic following Crusader colonization as manifest in animal butchery practices. Their article is one of five in a special volume of Archaeologia Baltica that examines different episodes of colonization in the eastern Baltic during the Middle Ages from an ecological perspective.
§5. The archaeology of childhood has been an area of interest for some time. The papers collected in Medieval Childhood (Hadley and Hemer 2014) broaden the focus from locating archaeological signatures of children to defining the roles childhood had for medieval societies. Mark Hall (2014), for example, approaches board and dice games not so much as evidence for children's activities but more as evidence for how "play" is a metaphor for all sorts of behaviors among adults. Sally Smith (2014) argues that villages themselves were maintained through the intersection of adults' and children's activities in the commons. Sally Crawford (2014) situates children in context of the family ("the child production and nurturing unit") with the aim of seeing changes in family practices as more than just a passive reflection of macro-economic developments. Domestic spheres are not just a reflection of wider cultural dynamics. People are building societies at home.
§6. The attention to daily experience noted in several publications is part of a growing engagement in medieval archaeology with theories of material culture, the entanglements of people and things. Such concerns are increasingly expressed in terms of objects having agency or being alive (e.g. Hodder 2012; Fogelin and Schiffer 2015). With their bipartite status as both animate agent and material culture, animals continue to be a useful point of entry into the topic. For example, Kristopher Poole (2015) examines Anglo-Saxon society from the perspective of cat/human engagements. In wrestling with such issues, we would do well to engage with concerns Torill Lindstrøm (2015) has about prevailing conceptions of non-human agency. She is broadly sympathetic with the project of symmetrical archaeology—the notion that everything (every thing) and everybody (every body) has agency—but, she takes the provocative position that the term agency is meaningless if applied to everything that has effects on its surroundings. Her stance becomes all that much more interesting when juxtaposed with Nanouschka Burström's assertion that object-biography approaches to artifacts suffer from inadequate attention to humanistic debates about the nature of biography (Burström 2014). These calls for more circumspection seem increasingly worthwhile cautions about equating, as Lindstrøm puts it, "pebbles, peanuts, ponies and people."
§7. For those easily fatigued by such ruminations on ontological complexities, fortunately, much medieval archaeology proceeds along different avenues. Daniel Melleno (2014) examines the North Sea as a cultural interaction sphere in which peoples were bound together by commercial links. Francis Morris (2015) takes a similar view of the region in the early medieval period, but also examines why the ocean seems to have been a barrier to contact prior to the late fourth century AD. The availability of excavation databases continues to afford possibilities for synthetic studies that would have been overwhelming tasks in an earlier era. For example, based on numismatic data, Rory Naismith (2014) points out that evidence for coins is far more common than decades ago when Grierson defined perspectives on monetized exchange in the early medieval period. David Orton et al. (2014) examine fish bone assemblages from 95 London excavations and identify a sudden surge in the supply of imported cod into London in the thirteenth century (probably from the far North Atlantic).
§8. Studies of human skeletal remains continue to shed light on a variety of questions. Maryanne Kowaleski (2014) reflects on the value of bioarchaeological and paleodemographic data for reconceptualizing rural/urban relationships in the Middle Ages. Brittany Walter et al. (2016) finds higher frequency of dental caries in females than males in two populations from medieval London. Annina Krüttli et al. (2014) investigate the prevalence of lactose tolerance via genetic analysis of remains in a German cemetery from circa 1200. Sarah Inskip et al. (2015) suggest that one strain of leprosy spread from Scandinavia to Britain. Incidentally, the same strain is also found in the United States today. Clifford Sofield (2015) examines why certain individuals in Anglo-Saxon England were buried in domestic settings when the overwhelming majority of interments occurred in cemeteries.
§9. Gary King and Charlotte Henderson (2014) bring together environmental and skeletal data to reconstruct the pathoecology of medieval York. Pathoecology examines the intersection of abiotic, biotic, and cultural factors for disease. Microscopic studies of parasite remains are an important source of data for pathoecology. Sandra Pichler et al. (2014) used an innovative technique that involved cutting thin sections of soil samples so that intestinal parasites could be studied according to their depositional location. The researchers used the technique to study the prevalence of fecal contamination of food and possible routes of parasite transmission between livestock and humans at the late Iron Age settlement of Basel-Gasfabrik (Switzerland). As residents of Flint, Michigan know, acidic solutions can leach lead out of materials. Kaare Rasmussen et al. (2015) examined the prevalence of lead and mercury in several hundred medieval skeletons from Denmark and Germany. Lead contamination is thought to derive primarily from pottery glazes and secondarily from lead in roofs and other parts of the urban environment. Mercury would primarily have been introduced as medicine. The researchers found significantly higher concentrations of both in urban populations than in rural ones.
§10. Hui-Yuan Yeh et al. (2015) propose a striking means of studying pilgrimage and other long-distance travel to Mamluk period Jerusalem (fifteenth to sixteenth century AD): soils from a latrine in the Christian Quarter. Researchers identified parasites associated with fecal contamination of food in all the coprolites (preserved feces) they recovered. Most notably, a few had a type of tapeworm common in Northern Europe but rare in the Middle East outside of Crusader contexts. Their presence in the Mamluk period suggests either that the parasites became established over time or that travelers continued to introduce them.
§11. Fiona Shapland et al. (2015) examine the lives of over 300 young English women from different cemetery excavations in England. Catriona McKenzie, et al. (2015) provide an account of the cross-border research collaboration around the Ballyhanna excavation (Co. Donegal, Ireland), which produced more than 1200 medieval burials. Tierney and Bird (2015) demonstrate the potential of ancient DNA analysis for sex identification with juvenile remains from Ballyhanna.
§12. Archaeologists from France's National Institute of Preventative Archaeological Research (INRAP) uncovered two well preserved "princely" burials dating to the Iron Age. The best published is from Lavau (Aube). It dates to the fifth century BC and includes an ornate bronze cauldron, Mediterranean wine vessels, and a chariot (Urbanus 2015). The second burial is from Warcq (Ardennes) and contains a chariot with well-preserved decorations, the remains of four horses and a pig, a bent scabbard, and a gold neck-ring. The opulence of these burials and their state of preservation make significant additions to the corpus of Late Iron Age "princely" burials, such as Vix and Hochdorf. Two additional studies reassess how such burials fit within their larger social landscapes. Garstki, et al. (2015) developed a 3D visualization of a burials and artifacts surrounding high-status burials adjacent to the Hohmichele "princely" burials (Germany). The aim is to facilitate understanding of the wider mortuary landscape. Fernández-Götz (2014b) places "princely" burial in the context of social change in these Iron Age societies.
§13. Elsewhere in France, archaeologists discovered the earliest evidence in Northern Europe for a dental implant (third century BC). Given the pain associated with inserting such a device, Guillaume Seguin et al. (2014) consider that the implant may have been installed post-mortem. INRAP archaeologists excavated a complete Merovingian necropolis with over 300 burials in Calvados. They also excavated a mass burial of more than 300 carefully deposited individuals associated with the fourteenth century Hôpital de la Trinité.
§14. In my last review, I reported on excavations at Alken Enge, a Danish site containing hundreds of sacrificed warriors. Ongoing research identified a wooden stick with the pelvic bones of four men and human bones bearing cut and scrape marks. The project head interprets the finds in the context of rituals marking battle victories.
§15. Finally in burial news, Russian archaeologists have returned to Zeleniy Yar, a medieval Siberian site known for accidentally mummified bodies, some wearing copper masks. The best preserved body is from a red-headed adult male fully shrouded in copper and placed in a wooden sarcophagus with an iron hatchet, furs, and a bronze buckle depicting a bear. Excavations also identified Persian bowls dating to the tenth or eleventh century.
§16. 2014–2015 produced a notable cluster of articles relating to medieval Poland. The studies of Iron Age "princely" burials discussed earlier are nicely bookended by the discovery in Poland of an eleventh century burial furnished with ceramic vessels, a silver neck ornament, and a knife. Excavators consider it an example of a "chamber tomb," a burial form common in Scandinavia, north Germany, and Rus areas, but infrequent in Central Europe. In addition to evidence of funeral rites (scatters of pottery sherds and patches of burning), excavators located several other surrounding graves, including one with a clasp commonly found in Rus. Two publications discuss excavations at Biała Góra, a colony founded in the tenth century by an expansionist Christian state that survived through a subsequent period of non-Christian resurgence, a thirteenth-century Crusade, and additional colonial efforts (Pluskowski et al. 2014 and Sawicki et al. 2015). Iwaszczuk (2014) synthesizes data on animal husbandry in Poland from 248 assemblages dating between the fifth and thirteenth century.
§17. A synthetic mood is running strong in medieval archaeology. A host of topical syntheses appeared in the last two years, including: archaeoentomological research in the North Atlantic (Forbes et al. 2014) and in Dublin (Reilly 2014); livestock management in Spain (Grau-Sologestoa 2015), early medieval England (O'Connor 2014), East Anglia (Crabtree 2014), eastern Romania (Stanc 2014), and Basque country (Sirignano 2014); agrarian archaeology in northern Italy (Rottoli 2014), northern Iberia (Castillo et al. 2014), al-Andalus (Alonso, et al. 2014), and early medieval Ireland (McCormick 2014, McCormick et al. 2014); assembly sites in Scotland (O'Grady 2014), a critique of earlier syntheses that distinguish Late Roman and early medieval cemeteries in Britain (Gerrard 2015); and urbanization in the transalpine "Celtic" lands (Filet 2014). Regional surveys appeared for: al-Andalus (Carvajal 2014), Gibralter (Lane et al. 2014), and early medieval Ireland (O'Sullivan, et al. 2014). The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology (Smith 2014) has numerous entries for medieval topics (e.g. medieval urbanism and urban dark earth) and specific areas (e.g. Italy, Iberia, British Isles, France, Scandinavia/the Baltic, and Russia/Rus). Notable festschrifts include a collection of essays on early medieval Italy and Spain edited by Sauro Gelichi and Richard Hodges (2015) and another collection of studies in honor of James Graham-Campbell edited by Andrew Reynolds and Leslie Webster (2013). The Journal of the North Atlantic (Special Volume 8, 2015) has provided a second volume of papers from The Assembly Project, a consortium which examined the role of assembly or "things" in creating collective identities in Northern Europe.
§18. Viking archaeology remains a productive area of research. Davide Zori and Jesse Byock (2014) present results from the multidisciplinary Mosfell Archaeology Project, which has been reconstructing settlement and environment in southwest Iceland since the 1990s. Archaeologists from the Danish Castle Center and Aarhus University announced the discovery of a new circular fortress of the Trelleborg type. Swedish archaeologists used ground-penetrating radar to identify a feasting hall in Aska, a locale already known for the discovery of a rich tenth-century burial (Rundkvist and Viberg 2015). The remains have much the same layout as the recently discovered hall at Old Uppsala near Stockholm (Ljungkvist and Frölund 2015). In reassessing what spurred overseas raiding, Steven Ashby (2015) calls for more attention to raiding as an initiation experience for both elites and commoners. His aim is to balance past emphasis on structural economic motivations. Frei et al. (2015) examine the importance of walrus ivory for Norse settlement in Iceland and Greenland. Arneborg (2015) advocates for a combination of internal and external factors driving the abandonment of Norse Greenland.
§19. While news media may not have focused on medieval archaeology as intently as in recent years, plenty of alternative media encounters with the Middle Ages sprouted during 2014–2015. The University of Texas, Austin released a digital platform called MappaMundi (globalmiddleages.org). The project grew out of efforts to globalize study of the Middle Ages. Its aim is to aid both teaching and research. Two websites aggregate information about famous medieval battles and the commemoration of their anniversaries: Agincourt (http://www.agincourt600.com/) and Clontarf (http://dh.tcd.ie/clontarf/).
§20. If you are seeking diversion, don't miss the recreation of medieval Oslo that students from the University of Oslo created with the educational edition of the video game Minecraft. ITV has created a mini-series called Beowulf: Return to the Shieldlands, to be released in early 2016. Without question the pinnacle of medieval media exposure came with the end of The Force Awakens, when Luke Skywalker is discovered at Skellig Michael, a monastery off the coast of Ireland. Presumably, I am not alone in struggling with the urge to become pedantic about this choice for depicting retreat from galactic turmoil. For those wishing to follow that urge, Terry O'Hagan provides useful fodder, including links to primary sources.
Alonso, Natàlia, Ferran Antolín, and Helena Kirchner. 2014. "Novelties and legacies in crops of the Islamic period in the northeast Iberian Peninsula: The archaeobotanical evidence in Madîna Balagî, Madîna Lârida, and Madîna Turṭûša." Quaternary International 346:149–161. [Back]
Arneborg, Jette. 2015. "Norse Greenland: Research into abandonment." In Medieval Archaeology in Scandinavia and Beyond: History, trends, and tomorrow, edited by Mette Svart Kristiansen, Else Roesdahl, James Graham-Campbell. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, pp. 257–271. [Back]
Ashby, Steven P. 2015. "What really caused the Viking Age? The social content of raiding and exploration." Archaeological Dialogues 22(1):89–106. [Back]
Beglane, Fiona. 2014. "Theatre of Power: The Anglo-Norman Park at Earlspark, Co Galway, Ireland." Medieval Archaeology 58(1): 307–317. [Back]
Beglane, Fiona. 2015. Anglo-Norman parks in medieval Ireland. Dublin: Four Courts Press. [Back]
Burström, Nanouschka M. 2014 "Things in the Eye of the Beholder: A Humanistic Perspective on Archaeological Object Biographies." Norwegian Archaeological Review 47(1):65–82. [Back]
Carvajal, José C. 2014. "The Archaeology of Al-Andalus: Past, Present and Future." Medieval Archaeology 58(1):318–339. [Back]
Carver, Martin. 2015. "Commerce and Cult: Confronted Ideologies in 6th–9th-Century Europe." Medieval Archaeology 59(1):1–23. [Back]
Castillo, Juan Antonio Quirós, Cristiano Nicosia, Ana Polo-Díaz, and María Ruiz del Árbol. 2014. "Agrarian archaeology in northern Iberia: Geoarchaeology and early medieval land use." Quaternary international 346:56–68. [Back]
Champion, Matthew. 2015a. "Magic on the Walls: Ritual Protection Marks in the Medieval Church." In Physical Evidence for Ritual Acts, Sorcery and Witchcraft in Christian Britain, edited by Ronald Hutton. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 15–38. [Back]
Champion, Matthew. 2015b. Medieval Graffiti: The Lost Voices of England's Churches. New York: Random House. [Back]
Christophersen, Axel. 2015. "Performing towns. Steps towards an understanding of medieval urban communities as social practice." Archaeological Dialogues 22(2):109–132. [Back]
Crabtree, Pam J. 2014. "Animal husbandry and farming in East Anglia from the 5th to the 10th centuries CE." Quaternary International 346:102–108. [Back]
Crawford, Sally. 2014. "Archaeology of the medieval family." In Medieval Childhood: Archaeological Approaches, edited by Dawn M. Hadley and Katie A. Hemer. Oxbow Books, pp. 26–38. [Back]
Díaz-Guardamino, Marta, Leonardo García Sanjuán and David Wheatley, editors. 2015. The Lives of Prehistoric Monuments in Iron Age, Roman, and Medieval Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Back]
Fernández-Götz, Manuel. 2014a. "Reassessing the Oppida: The role of power and religion." Oxford Journal of Archaeology 33(4):379–394. [Back]
———. 2014b. Identity and Power: The Transformation of Iron Age Societies in Northeast Gaul. Amsterdam Archaeological Studies Monograph 21. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. [Back]
Filet, Clara. 2014. "New Approaches to the Celtic Urbanization Process." DigIt: Journal of the Flinders Archaeological Society 2(1):19–27. [Back]
Fogelin, Lars and Michael Brian Schiffer. 2015. "Rites of passage and other rituals in the life histories of objects" Cambridge Archaeological Journal 25 (4):815–827. [Back]
Forbes, Véronique, Frédéric Dussault, and Allison Bain. 2014. "Archaeoentomological research in the North Atlantic: past, present, and future." Journal of the North Atlantic 26:1–24. [Back]
Frei, Karin M., Ashley N. Coutu, Konrad Smiarowski, Ramona Harrison, Christian K. Madsen, Jette Arneborg, Robert Frei Gardar Guðmundsson, Søren M. Sindbæk, James Woollett, Steven Hartman, Megan Hicks, and Thomas H. McGovern. 2015. "Was it for walrus? Viking Age settlement and medieval walrus ivory trade in Iceland and Greenland." World Archaeology 47(3):439–466. [Back]
Garstki, Kevin, Bettina Arnold, and Matthew L. Murray. 2015. "Reconstituting community: 3D visualization and early Iron Age social organization in the Heuneburg mortuary landscape." Journal of Archaeological Science 54:23–30. [Back]
Gelichi, Sauro and Richard Hodges. 2015. New Directions in Early Medieval European Archaeology: Spain and Italy Compared: Essays for Riccardo Francovich. Haut Moyen Âge, 24. Turnhout: Brepols. [Back]
Gerrard, James. 2015. "Synthesis, chronology, and 'late Roman' cemeteries in Britain." American Journal of Archaeology 119(4):565–572. [Back]
Gilchrist, Roberta. 2012. Medieval Life. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. [Back]
———. 2014. "Monastic and church archaeology." Annual Review of Anthropology 43(1):235–250. [Back]
Gordon, Stephen. 2015. "Domestic magic and the walking dead in medieval England: A Diachronic approach." In The Materiality of Magic: An artifactual investigation into ritual practices and popular beliefs, edited by Ceri Houlbrook and Natalie Armitage. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 65–84. [Back]
Grau-Sologestoa, Idoia. 2015. "Livestock management in Spain from Roman to post-medieval times: a biometrical analysis of cattle, sheep/goat and pig." Journal of Archaeological Science 54:123–134. [Back]
Hadley, Dawn M., and Katie A. Hemer, editors. 2014. Medieval Childhood: Archaeological approaches. Oxford: Oxbow Books. [Back]
Hall, Mark. 2014. "'Merely players'? Playtime, material culture and medieval childhood." In Medieval Childhood: Archaeological approaches, edited by Dawn M. Hadley and Katie A. Hemer. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 39–56. [Back]
Härke, Heinrich. 2015. "Grave goods in early medieval burials: messages and meanings." Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying 19(1):41–60. [Back]
Härke, Heinrich, and Andrej Belinskij. 2014. "Causes and Contexts of Long-Term Ritual Change." Death and Changing Rituals: Function and meaning in ancient funerary practices 7:93. [Back]
Hodder, Ian. 2012. Entangled: An Archaeology of the Relationships between Humans and Things. Malden (MA): Wiley-Blackwell. [Back]
Houlbrook, Ceri, and Natalie Armitage, editors. 2015. The Materiality of Magic: An artifactual investigation into ritual practices and popular beliefs. Oxford: Oxbow Books. [Back]
Hutton, Ronald, ed. 2015. Physical Evidence for Ritual Acts, Sorcery and Witchcraft in Christian Britain. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. [Back]
Inskip Sarah A., G. Michael Taylor, Sonia R. Zakrzewski, Simon A. Mays, Alistair W. G. Pike, Gareth Llewellyn, Christopher M. Williams, Oona Y-C Lee, Houdini H. T. Wu, David E. Minnikin, Gurdyal S. Besra, and Graham R. Stewart. 2015. "Osteological, Biomolecular and Geochemical Examination of an Early Anglo-Saxon Case of Lepromatous Leprosy." PLoS ONE 10(5): e0124282. [Back]
Iwaszczuk, Urszula. 2014. "Animal husbandry on the Polish territory in the Early Middle Ages." Quaternary International 346:69–101. [Back]
Jervis, Ben. 2014. "Middens, memory and the effect of waste. Beyond symbolic meaning in archaeological deposits. An early medieval case study." Archaeological Dialogues, 21(2):175–196. [Back]
King, Gary, and Charlotte Henderson. 2014 "Living cheek by jowl: The pathoecology of medieval York." Quaternary International 341:131–142. [Back]
Kowaleski, Maryanne. 2014. "Medieval People in Town and Country: New Perspectives from Demography and Bioarchaeology." Speculum 89(3):573–600. [Back]
Kristjánsdóttir, Steinunn. 2015. "Becoming Christian: a matter of everyday resistance and negotiation." Norwegian Archaeological Review 48(1):27–45. [Back]
Krüttli, Annina, Abigail Bouwman, Gülfirde Akgül, Philippe Della Casa, Frank Rühli, and Christina Warinner. 2014. "Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval Central Europe." PLoS ONE 9(1):e86251. [Back]
Lane, Kevin, Clive Finlayson, Uwe Vagelpohl, Francisco José Guzmán, and Francisco Giles Pacheco. 2014. "Myths, Moors and holy war: reassessing the history and archaeology of Gibraltar and the Straits, AD 711–1462." Medieval Archaeology 58(1):136–161. [Back]
Lindstrøm, Torill Christine. 2015. "Agency 'in itself'. A discussion of inanimate, animal and human agency." Archaeological Dialogues 22(2):207–238. [Back]
Ljungkvist, John and Per Frölund. 2015. "Gamla Uppsala–the emergence of a centre and a magnate complex." Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History 16:1–29. [Back]
McCormick, Finbar. 2014. "Agriculture, settlement and society in early medieval Ireland." Quaternary International 346:119–130. [Back]
McCormick, Finbar, Thomas R. Kerr, Meriel McClatchie, and Aidan O'Sullivan. 2014. Early Medieval Agriculture, Livestock and Cereal Production in Ireland, AD 400–1100. BAR International Series 2647. Oxford: Archaeopress. [Back]
McKenzie, Catriona, Eileen M Murphy and Colm J Donnelly, editors. 2015. The Science of a Lost Medieval Gaelic Graveyard: the Ballyhanna Research Project. Bray: Wordwell Press. [Back]
Melleno, Daniel. 2014. "North Sea Networks: Trade and communication from the Seventh to the Tenth Century." Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 45:65–89. [Back]
Morris, Francis Michael. 2015. "Cross‐North Sea Contacts in the Roman Period." Oxford Journal of Archaeology 34(4):415–438. [Back]
Naismith, Rory. 2014. "The Social Significance of Monetization in the Early Middle Ages" Past & Present 223(1):3–39. [Back]
Naum, Magdalena. 2014. "Multi-Ethnicity and Material Exchanges in Late Medieval Tallinn." European Journal of Archaeology 17(4):656–677. [Back]
O'Connor, Terry. 2014 "Livestock and animal husbandry in early medieval England." Quaternary International 346:109–118. [Back]
O'Grady, Oliver. 2014. "Judicial Assembly Sites in Scotland: Archaeological and Place-Name Evidence of the Scottish Court Hill." Medieval Archaeology 58:104–135. [Back]
Orton, David C., James Morris, Alison Locker, and James H. Barrett. 2014. "Fish for the city: meta-analysis of archaeological cod remains and the growth of London's northern trade." Antiquity 88(340):516. [Back]
O'Sullivan, A., F. McCormick, T. R. Kerr, and L. Harney. 2014. Early Medieval Ireland AD 400–1200: The Evidence from Archaeological Excavations. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. [Back]
Pichler, Sandra L., Christine Pümpin, David Brönnimann, and Philippe Rentzel. 2014. "Life in the proto-urban style: the identification of parasite eggs in micromorphological thin sections from the Basel-Gasfabrik Late Iron Age settlement, Switzerland." Journal of Archaeological Science 43:55–65. [Back]
Pluskowski, Aleksander, Zbigniew Sawicki, Lisa-Marie Shillito, Monika Badura, Daniel Makowiecki, Mirosława Zabilska-Kunek, Krish Seetah, and Alexander Brown. 2014. "Biała Gora: the forgotten colony in the medieval Pomeranian-Prussian borderlands." Antiquity 88(341):863–882. [Back]
Poole, Kristopher. 2015. "The contextual cat: Human–animal relations and social meaning in Anglo-Saxon England." Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 22(3):857–882. [Back]
Raffield, Ben. 2014. "'A River of knives and swords': ritually deposited weapons in English watercourses and wetlands during the Viking Age." European Journal of Archaeology 17(4):634–655. [Back]
Rasmussen, Kaare Lund, Lilian Skytte, Anne Juul Jensen, and Jesper Lier Boldsen. 2015. "Comparison of mercury and lead levels in the bones of rural and urban populations in Southern Denmark and Northern Germany during the Middle Ages." Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 3:358–370. [Back]
Reilly, Eileen. 2014. "From Christchurch Place to Fishamble Street: Developments in archaeoentomology in Dublin, Ireland, since 1981." Quaternary International 341(18):143–151. [Back]
Reynolds, Andrew and Leslie Webster, editors. 2013. Early Medieval Art and Archaeology in the Northern World: Studies in Honour of James Graham-Campbell. The Northern World 58. Leiden: Brill. [Back]
Rottoli, Mauro. 2014. "Reflections on Early Medieval resources in northern Italy: The archaeobotanical and archaeozoological data." Quaternary International 346:20–27. [Back]
Rundkvist, Martin, and Andreas Viberg. 2015. "Geophysical investigations on the Viking Period platform mound at Aska in Hagebyhöga parish, Sweden." Archaeological Prospection 22(2):131–138. [Back]
Sawicki, Zbigniew, Aleksander Pluskowski, Alexander Brown, Monika Badura, Daniel Makowiecki, Lisa-Marie Shillito, Mirosława Zabilska-Kunek, and Krish Seetah. 2015. "Survival at the frontier of holy war: Political expansion, crusading, environmental exploitation and the medieval colonizing settlement at Biała Góra, North Poland." European Journal of Archaeology 18(2):282–311. [Back]
Seguin, Guillaume, Emmanuel d'Incau, Pascal Murail, and Bruno Maureille. 2014. "The earliest dental prosthesis in Celtic Gaul? The case of an Iron Age burial at Le Chêne, France." Antiquity 88(340):488–500. [Back]
Seetah, Krish, Aleksander Pluskowski, Daniel Makowiecki, and Linas Daugnora. 2014. "New technology or adaptation at the frontier? Butchery as a signifier of cultural transitions in the medieval Eastern Baltic." Archaeologia Baltica 20:59–76. [Back]
Shapland, Fiona, Mary Lewis, and Rebecca Watts. 2015. "The lives and deaths of young medieval women: The osteological evidence." Medieval Archaeology 59(1):272–289. [Back]
Sirignano, Carmina, Idoia Grau Sologestoa, Paola Ricci, Maite Iris García-Collado, Simona Altieri, Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, and Carmine Lubritto. 2014. "Animal husbandry during Early and High Middle Ages in the Basque Country (Spain)." Quaternary International 346:138–148. [Back]
Smith, Claire, editor. 2014. Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. New York: Springer. [Back]
Smith, Sally. 2014. "The spaces of late medieval peasant childhood: Children and social reproduction." In Medieval Childhood: Archaeological Approaches, edited by Dawn M Hadley and Katie A. Hemer. Oxbow Books, pp. 57–74. [Back]
Sofield, Clifford. 2015. "Living with the Dead: Human Burials in Anglo-Saxon Settlement Contexts." Archaeological Journal 172(2):351–388. [Back]
Stanc, Margareta Simina, and Luminita Bejenaru. 2014. "Domestic Mammals in Eastern Romania during the Early Middle Ages." Quaternary International 346:131–137. [Back]
Tierney, S. and Bird, J. M. 2015. "Molecular sex identification of juvenile skeletal remains from an Irish medieval population using ancient DNA analysis." Journal of Archaeological Science 62:27–38. [Back]
Urbanus, Jason. 2014. "Tomb of a Highborn Celt" Archaeology Magazine, November/December:44–49. [Back]
Walter, Brittany S., Sharon N. DeWitte, and Rebecca C. Redfern. 2016. "Sex differentials in caries frequencies in medieval London." Archives of Oral Biology 63:32–39. (published on-line Nov. 2015). [Back]
Yeh, Hui-Yuan, Kay Prag, Christa Clamer, Jean-Baptiste Humbert, and Piers D. Mitchell. 2015. "Human intestinal parasites from a Mamluk Period cesspool in the Christian quarter of Jerusalem: Potential indicators of long distance travel in the 15th century AD." International Journal of Paleopathology 9:69–75. [Back]
Zori, Davide and Jesse Byock, eds. 2014. Viking Archaeology in Iceland, Mosfell Archaeological Project. Brepols. [Back]
Last Modified: 18-Apr-2017