Heroic Age Logo The Heroic Age, Issue 2, Autumn/Winter 1999  

Rhydderch Hael

Notes and Bibliography


  1. On the etymology of the place name, see Watson 1926:15. On the long history of occupation at the site, see MacIvor 1981 and Alcock and Alcock 1990.

  2. For a useful summary of the early kings of Strathclyde, see MacQuarrie 1993.

  3. For discussion of Adomnan's Vita Columbae, see Herbert 1988, Picard 1982 and 1983.

  4. The genealogies are collected in Bartrum 1966. The value of using this type of material as historical data is discussed in Dumville 1977a.

  5. Bonedd Gwyr y Gogledd, "The Descent of the Men of the North", is found in the manuscript Peniarth 45, fos.291v-292r; the Harleian genealogies are preserved in Harl.3859 of c.1100.

  6. A useful edition of the poem Miracula Nyniae Episcopi appears in MacQueen 1960. For an English translation see MacQueen 1990.

  7. On the Historia's credentials as a valid historical source, see Jackson 1963 and the rather more pessimistic view offered in Dumville 1986.

  8. The first two sentences of the passage appear thus in the Latin text quoted by Morris: "Contra illum quattor reges, Urbgen, et Riderchhen, et Guallauc, et Morcant, dimicaverunt. Deodric contra illum Urbgen cum filiis dimicabat fortiter" (Morris 1980:79).

  9. On Aedan's military career, see Anderson 1973:145-9.

  10. The origin of the Myrddin poems is examined in Jarman 1978.

  11. For editions and English translations of both Lives, see Forbes 1874.

  12. For early forms of the place name Partick, see Watson 1926:386.

  13. The textual problems which cast a veil over so much of the Welsh material are summarised in Dumville 1977b.


Alcock, L., and E. Alcock. 1990. "Reconnaissance Excavations on early Historic Fortifications and Other Royal Sites in Scotland, 1974-84: Excavations at Alt Clut, Clyde Rock, Strathclyde." Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 120:95-149.

Anderson, M.O. 1973. Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Bartrum, P.C., ed. 1966. Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Bromwich, R. 1961. Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Dumville, D.N. 1977a. "Kingship, Genealogies and Regnal Lists." Pp.72-104 in Early Medieval Kingship. P.H. Sawyer and I.N. Wood, Editors. Leeds: The Editors.

Dumville, D.N. 1977b. "Sub-Roman Britain: History and Legend." History (New Series) 62:173-92.

Dumville, D.N. 1986. "The Historical Value of the Historia Brittonum." Arthurian Literature 6:1-26.

Forbes, A.P. 1874. Lives of Saint Ninian and Saint Kentigern. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas.

Herbert, M. 1988. Iona, Kells and Derry: The History and Hagiography of the Monastic Familia of Columba. Oxford: Clarendon.

Jackson, K.H. 1958. "The Sources for the Life of Saint Kentigern." Pp.272-357 in Studies in the Early British Church. Edited by N.K. Chadwick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jackson, K.H. 1963. "On the Northern British Section in Nennius." Pp.20-62 in Celt and Saxon: Studies in the Early British Border. Edited by N.K. Chadwick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jarman, A.O.H. 1960. The Legend of Merlin. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Jarman, A.O.H. 1978. "Early Stages in the Development of the Merlin Legend." Pp. 335-48 in Astudiaethau ar yr Hengerdd. Edited by R. Bromwich and R.B. Jones. Cardiff: University of Wales Press

Jarman, A.O.H. 1988. Aneirin: Y Gododdin. Cardiff: Gomer.

MacIvor, I. 1981. Dumbarton Castle. London: HMSO

Macquarrie, A. 1986. "The Career of St Kentigern of Glasgow: Vitae, Lectiones and Glimpses of Fact." Innes Review 37:3-24.

Macquarrie, A. 1993. "The Kings of Strathclyde, c.400-1018." Pp.1-19 in Medieval Scotland: Government, Lordship and Community: Studies Presented to G.W.S. Barrow. Edited by A. Grant and K.J. Stringer. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

MacQueen, J. 1990. St Nynia. Revised edition. Edinburgh: Polygon

MacQueen, W. 1960. "Miracula Nyniae Episcopi." Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society (3rd Series) 38:21-57.

Marsden, J. 1992. Northanhymbre Saga: the History of the Anglo-Saxon Kings of Northumbria. London: BCA.

Miller, M. 1975a. "Historicity and the Pedigrees of the Northcountrymen." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 26:255-80.

Miller, M. 1975b. "The Commanders at Arthuret." Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (2nd Series) 75:96-118.

Morris, J. 1980. Nennius: British History and the Welsh Annals. London: Phillimore.

Pennar, M. 1989. The Black Book of Carmarthen. Felinfach: Llanerch.

Picard, J-M. 1982. "The Purpose of Adomnan's Vita Columbae." Peritia 1:160-77.

Picard, J-M. 1983. "Bede, Adomnan and the Writing of History." Peritia 2:50-70.

Sharpe, R., ed. 1995. Adomnan of Iona: Life of Saint Columba. New York: Penguin.

Skene, W.F. 1876. "Notice of the Site of the Battle of Ardderyd or Arderyth." Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 6:91-98.

Watson, W.J. 1926. The History of the Celtic Place Names of Scotland. Edinburgh: Blackwood.

Next Return to Table of Contents Return to homepage