The Heroic Age
1. Roy Liuzza, 21 May 1999, online posting, discussion group:AnsaxNet.
2. Roy Liuzza, 21 May. 1999, online posting, discussion group: AnsaxNet.
3. James Earl, 24 May. 1999, online posting, discussion group: AnsaxNet.
4. Peter Richardson, 24 May. 1999, online posting, discussion group: AnsaxNet.
5. Peter Richardson, 24 May. 1999, online posting, discussion group: AnsaxNet.
6. For a translation of the various MSS of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle see Michael Swanton, ed., (1997) 'The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'. London: J. M. Dent.
7. For the Anglo-Saxon text and a translation of this poem see Bill Griffiths, ed., (1991) The Battle of Maldon: Text and Translation. Pinner: Anglo-Saxon Books.
8. George Clark, 22 May. 1999, online posting, discussion group: AnsaxNet.
9. A 973
Her Eadgar wæs, Engla waldend,
cordre micelre, to cyninge gehalgod .
on ðære ealdanbyrig, Acesmannes ceastre .
eac hi ig buend oðre worde beornas
Badan nemnap. þær wæs blis micel,
on þam eadgan ðæge . eallum geworden .
þonne nida bearn . Nemnad ond cigad
Pentecostenes dæg. þær wæs preosta heap .
micel muneca dreat . mine gefrege .
gleawra ge gaderode. Ond ða agangen wæs
tyn hund wintra , geteled rimes .
fram gebyrdtide bremes cyninges ,
leohta hyrdes buton ðær to lafe
pa agan wæs winter ge teles , þæs de gewritu secgad.
seofon ond twentig. swa neah wæs sigora frean .
Ðusend aurnen . Ða þa ðis gelamp.
Ond him Eadmundes eafora hæfde .
nigon ond XX . nidweorca heard .
wintra on worulde . pis geworden wæs .
ond þa on Ðam XXX wæs Ðeoden gehalgod.
(This text has been transcribed from Charles Plummer, ed., (1892) Two of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles Parallel. vol. 1, Oxford: Clarendon.: 118. This verse is also present in recensions B and C.)
"Here, Edgar, King of the English,
was consecrated as king in a great assembly
in the ancient town of Ache-man's city
the warriors dwelling in the island also call it
by the other term Baths. There was great rejoicing
come to all on that blessed day,
which children of men name and call
Pentecost Day. There was gathered,
as I have heard, a pile of priests,
a great multitude of monks,
of learned men. By then had passed,
reckoned by number, ten hundred years,
from the time of birth of the illustrious King,
Shepherd of Lights-except there remained
twenty-seven of the number of years,
as the writings say. Thus nigh on a thousand years
of the Lord of Victories had run on when this befell;
and Edmund's offspring, bold in deeds of conflict,
was nine-and-20 years in the world when this came about,
and then in the 30th was consecrated prince."
(Michael Swanton, ed., (1997) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: J. M. Dent. 118.)
On his dagum hit godode georne, Ond God him geude þæt he wunode on sibbe þa hwile þe he leofode, Ond he dyde, swa him þearf wæs - earnode þes georne. He arærde Godes lof wide, Ond Godes lage lufode, Ond folces frid bette, swiþost þara cyninga, þe ær him gewurde, be manna gemynde. Ond God him eac fylste, þæt cyningas ond (h)eorlas georne him to bugan, Ond wurdon underþeodde to þam ðe he wolde, Ond butan gefeohte eall he gewilde þæt he sylf wolde. He weard wide geond þeodland swyðe geweordad for þam ðe he weordode Godes naman georne, Ond Godes lage smeade, oft ond gelome, Ond Godes lof rærde, wide ond side, Ond wislice rædde, oftost a symble, for Gode Ond for weorulde, ealre his þeode. Ane (52v) misdæðe he dyde þeah to swyde, þæt he eldeodige unsida lufode, Ond hepene þeawas, innan þysan lande gebrohte tofæste, Ond utlændisce hider in tihte, Ond deriende leoda bespeon to þysan earde. Ac God him geunne þæt his goddæda swydran weordan þonne misdæda, His s\a/wle to gescyldnysse on langsuman side.
(This text has been transcribed from G. P. Cubbin, ed., (1996) MS D, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition, vol. 6, Cambridge: Brewer. 45.)
"In his days it eagerly improved, and God granted to him that he dwelled in peace whilst he lived. And he did as there was need for him he eagerly earned this. He raised God's praise widely, and loved God's law, and improved the peoples' peace, more than those kings who were before him in the memory of men. And God also granted to him that kings and earls eagerly submitted to him, and were subdued to that which he desired, and without battle he controlled all that he himself desired. He was widely throughout the peoples'-land much honoured because he eagerly honoured God's name, and considered God's law, often and constantly, and promoted God's praise, far and wide, and wisely counselled, most often always continuously, in the sight of God and the world and all his nation. One misdeed he committed, however, too much, in that he loved one-sidedly foreign-vicious customs, and introduced heathen practices too securely into this land. And invited foreigners hither, and attracted a damaging people to this land. But may God grant him that his good deeds be greater than his misdeeds, to shield his soul on the longlasting journey." (My translation.)
11. "Here, Edgar was . . . anointed as King". The use of "Her" is typical of annalistic prose. It stems originally from scribal notation, used to indicate where text should be added to annals which had already been marked out. It is often translated as "in this year", but more literally means "at this point".
12. "The famous king".
13. "Heaven's Guardian".
14. This text is available fully glossed in Bruce Mitchell and Fred C. Robinson (1986) A Guide to Old English. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 204-209.
15. "Ecclesiastics", literally "prayermen".
16. The relevant part of this text is most readily available in Dorothy Whitelock (1967) Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader in Prose and Verse. Oxford: OUP 204-209.
17. See note 14.
18. "A heap of priests, a great host of monks".
19. "God's vicar".
20. For an analysis of the formulaic elements in the piece and their presence elsewhere in the Wulfstan canon, and also a comparison with the canon of the lfric, see Jost 1923.
21. " He raised God's praise widely, and loved God's law".
22. "King Edgar furthered Christendom". W. W. Skeat ed., (1881) Ælfric's Lives of the Saints. vol. 1, London: EETS. 469.
23. Bruce Gilchrist, 24 May. 1999, online posting, discussion group: AnsaxNet
Bill, Griffiths ed. (1991) The Battle of Maldon: Text and Translation. Pinner: Anglo-Saxon Books.
Cubbin, G. P., ed. (1996) MS D, "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition," vol. 6, Cambridge: Brewer.
Jost, K. (1923) "Wulfstan und Die Angelsächsische Chronik," Anglia (47) 105-123.
Mitchell, Bruce and Fred C. Robinson (1986) A Guide to Old English. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Plummer, Charles, ed. (1892) Two of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles Parallel. vol. 1of 2, Oxford: Clarendon.
Skeat, W. W. ed. (1881) Ælfric's Lives of the Saints. vol. 1, London: EETS.
Swanton, Michael ed. (1997) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: J. M. Dent.
Whitelock, Dorothy ed. (1967) Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader in Prose and Verse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dorothy, ed. (1952) Sermo Lupi ad Anglos. London: Methuen.